nationalité déchue

23 janvier 2015


DROIT             La procédure de déchéance de nationalité est très rare car très encadrée…

Déchéance de nationalité:

Dans quelles circonstances peut-on ne plus être français?

Le buste d'une Marianne, symbole de la République, devant un drapeau tricolore

Le Conseil constitutionnel a validé vendredi la déchéance de la nationalité française d’un djihadiste franco-marocain condamné pour terrorisme, Ahmed Sahnouni, en jugeant «conformes à la Constitution» les dispositions du code civil contestées par son avocat. 20 Minutes fait le point sur la procédure de déchéance de nationalité.

Qui peut être déchu de sa nationalité?

Il faut deux conditions. D’abord, il faut être binational. En effet, depuis 1998, le code civil interdit de déchoir un individu s’il devient apatride, c’est-à-dire s’il n’est ressortissant d’aucun pays. Et pour être déchu de sa nationalité française, il faut d’abord l’avoir acquise et ce, depuis moins de dix ans. Des personnes nées françaises ne peuvent donc être déchues de la nationalité, même si elles ont une double nationalité.

Pourquoi peut-on être déchu de sa nationalité?

L’article 25 du Code civil détermine cinq situations, très précises, relevant notamment de l’espionnage, du terrorisme et de la sécurité nationale.

Comment se déroule la procédure?

C’est le gouvernement qui prend la décision de déchoir de sa nationalité un individu, et ce par décret. Ce décret doit être validé par le Conseil d’Etat.

Combien de personnes ont été déchues de leur nationalité?

Il faut en fait distinguer deux périodes: avant et après 1998. A cette date, Elisabeth Guigou, ministre de la Justice, adapte le droit français à une convention européenne signée en 1997 sur l’impossibilité de rendre des personnes apatrides. En 1996, Jacques Toubon, alors garde des Sceaux, élargit les cas possibles de déchéance de nationalité aux faits de terrorisme. Entre 1989, date à laquelle le ministère de l’Intérieur a tenu des statistiques précises, et 1998, quatorze personnes ont été déchues de leur nationalité. Mais pour neuf de ces cas, c’était au titre de l’article 5 (supprimé depuis), qui permettait de déchoir toute personne qui aurait commis «un acte qualifié de crime par les lois françaises ayant entraîné une condamnation à une peine d’au moins 5 années d’emprisonnement».

Depuis 1998, huit personnes, avec le cas d’Ahmed Sahnouni, se sont vues retirer leur nationalité. A noter que sous le mandat de Nicolas Sarkozy, qui réclame cette déchéance de nationalité pour les terroristes alors que la disposition existe déjà, aucune déchéance de nationalité n’a été prononcée.

Est-ce la seule manière de perdre sa nationalité ?

Il existe en fait plusieurs manières de perdre sa nationalité. L’article 23.7 stipule qu’un Français qui se comporte «en fait comme le national d’un pays étranger peut, s’il a la nationalité de ce pays, être déclaré, par décret après avis conforme du Conseil d’Etat, avoir perdu la qualité de Français». Par ailleurs, tout Français, même mineur, qui a une autre nationalité peut demander à «répudier» la nationalité française sur sa demande. Mais cela doit être validé « par le gouvernement» et par décret, selon l’article 23.3 du Code civil.

De la même manière, lorsqu’on acquiert une autre nationalité  et que l’on vit à l’étranger, on peut perdre sa nationalité si l’on en fait la demande. Là aussi, il faut un décret. On peut aussi perdre sa nationalité lorsqu’on n’en fait pas usage, c’est-à-dire lorsqu’une personne vit à l’étranger depuis au moins cinquante ans, que c’est le cas de ses parents et qu’elle ne peut prouver avoir eu une résidence en France dans ce laps de temps. Outre le fait de ne pas avoir de résidence en France, il faut aussi ne pas avoir de documents prouvant sa nationalité française pour la perde.

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